In fact it is a statement that “Wherever we are, advertisements are with us.” appears to be completely true. The present age is the age of advertising. Without this the progress of trade and industry is not possible. It will not be an exaggeration if advertising is called the axis of modern trade and commerce, because it is advertising that has made business reach the pinnacle of progress in the world. According to a scholar, “The lifeblood of the present business is also advertising.” That is why today every manufacturer is advertising the product produced by him in new ways. Nowadays, all those goods are included under advertising, through which information about the newly manufactured item is provided to the consumer, so that they become ready to buy it. Today advertising is visible all around. Wherever we go, we find advertisements being followed. From opening our eyes in the morning till lying down at night, we are surrounded by advertisements from all around. The calendar inside the room is also an advertisement, when you open the newspaper, you find the advertisement, when you read the magazine, you find it with the advertisement. When we go out for some work, we find advertisements with us through walls, posters etc. When we watch programs broadcast on television for entertainment, at that time also we find advertisements with us. Today various producers go from village to village by forming their own drama company or music program and entertain the villagers. In the middle or at the end of these programs they advertise their object by singing songs or reciting dhola or converting them into film songs. When we receive an item as a gift, we find the advertisement with us in its packing. These advertisements are seen in the form of commodity and institutional advertisements.
In commodity advertising, information is given about the item. Its purpose is to sell a particular item. Here the word commodity also includes service. There are three types of commodity advertising
(1) Guidance Advertisement – It is the advertisement which is done in the first stage of the life-cycle of the object. It arouses consumer sentiments. Its purpose is to give information about something. It does not advertise for any particular brand. For example, when television initially entered the market, advertising was not done for a particular television but to arouse the sentiments of the consumer.
(2) Competitive advertising – This is done at the stage of maturity of the life cycle of the commodity. In this, emphasis is placed on buying a particular brand and for this, more emphasis is placed on the characteristics of that brand.
(3) Advertisement with power – This advertisement remains beneficial when the sale of the item is falling. The purpose of this advertisement is to remind the customer the name of the item. It is a kind of reminder advertisement. Institutional advertising is those advertisements in which the name of the particular item is not given, but customers are urged to see the seal of the company, e.g. Philips India Limited sometimes also advertises that the Philips company’s goods are good. Because it is supported by the Philips company Holland. Its aim is to build the reputation of the company.
Characteristics of Advertisement
The salient features of advertising can be explained as follows:
1. Advertisement is a written / oral / pictorial / visual message.
2. Advertisement is a public presentation.
3. Advertisement is paid for by the advertiser.
4. Advertisement is a broad medium of giving information related to goods or services.
5. Various colors and pictures are used in this.
6. There is a difference between advertising and promotion.
7. Advertisement is not an offer but an invitation to offer.
8. Each advertisement is done by a certain advertiser or sponsor.
9. It induces the general public to purchase the commodity.
10. In advertising, the message is repeated again and again so that people remember the object continuously.
Functions of Advertising
Advertising is one of the best and most important measures in today’s era among the measures adopted by a businessman for the development of his business. In other words, in the present day any successful businessman can maximize his profit at the same time when he resorts to advertising. This is the reason why the former President Roosevelt has said that “If I am reborn, I think I will give priority to advertising business than any other business.” Following are the important functions of advertising
(1) Increase in consumption- Advertising increases both demand and sales. Due to this the demand for goods remains constant and production work is done on a large scale. This ensures stability in the prices of commodities. Thus it would not be wrong to say that advertising is a good means of increasing consumption and living.
(2) Satisfying the Consumers – Advertising removes the confusion found among the customers and promotes interest or satisfaction. It is always the endeavor of a good businessman that his product should be praised in such a way that the consumer is always satisfied. In this form also advertising helps both the consumer and the producer.
(3) Increase in sales – By advertising, information is given to the customer about the properties, utility and benefits etc. of the item. Its main objective is to increase the number of consumers. This leads to an increase in production, which also reduces costs. Pro. In the words of Lancaster, “Advertising is the art of selling as of printing.” Thus advertising maintains the previous demand and helps in increasing the sales.
(4) Helping the middlemen To bring the goods from the production area to the market, various intermediaries are needed, that is why another important function of advertising is to help the middlemen. Every producer creates demand by advertising his goods before bringing the goods to the market. This makes it easier for the intermediaries.
(5) Insurance of sale Advertisement is a type of insurance. Due to continuous advertising, the consumer comes to know that a certain item is good. This increases the interest of the consumers towards the goods and the demand for these goods starts by the consumers. This increases the popularity of the goods. Hence advertising is the insurance of sales.
(6) To maintain the interest of the customers – Advertising is a tool which is also helpful in maintaining the interest of the consumers. Through this, the properties of goods are conveyed to the consumers in various ways. This is the reason that the interest and demand of the people is found to be constant. That is why advertising is called commercial power.
(7) Removal of sales barriers- Advertising is said to be helpful in removing the barriers to sales as well. It is easy for the public to advertise the wrong things given about an object. This gives psychological satisfaction. This is the reason that the impact of wrong advertising is less on the consumers.
(8) Means of obtaining intermediaries Today the need of middlemen is found to be equal in selling of goods. That is why it is said that when a commodity is advertised again and again, many wholesalers establish contact with the producer themselves to get the agency of the commodity.
Thus mediation is established. (9) Development of new markets – Advertising is also helpful in providing knowledge of new areas or markets to its customers for the sale of their goods. This expands the market for sales and increases the mobility of goods. Thus the market area also becomes wider. This is the reason for the international market today.
(10) Information regarding changes – Sometimes especially large producers have to change their production policies according to the consumer’s interest, climate or season. Advertising also helps the producers in this task. That is why it is said that advertising is a way of presenting a proposal to the people.
(11) To generate confidence in the superiority of the object – Advertising also generates confidence in the mind of the public about the superiority of the object. The more widespread and far the farther the thing is advertised, the more trust is found in people. Through this, the customer can also compare one item with another.
(12) Increase in the standard of living – Through advertisements, information is obtained about various types of new items of the customers. Not only this, advertising also motivates people to consume. That is why it is said that due to the achievement of the best things, the life of the people improves and the standard of living is high.
(13) Employment Opportunities – Advertising increases employment opportunities in the society. Various types of artists, printers and production workers get employment. In other words, advertisements provide skilled persons, such as employment opportunities. painters, photographers and persons engaged in various agencies
(14) Promotion of selling art – Advertising also helps with selling art. Consumers already know in which areas from which sellers the goods can be obtained. In this way both the consumers and the sellers get help from this type of advertisement. Both of them are like locks and keys.
(15) Motivation to work – Advertisement increases demand, due to which production has to increase. For this, recourse to division of labor, specialization and modernization etc. is taken. Therefore, advertising makes the producers hardworking and motivates them to do more work.