Meaning and Definitions of Buying Motive
Whenever every human makes a purchase, there is some motivation working behind it and there must be some purpose or the other. Each person’s motivations and objectives are also different. In addition, the same motivations do not work behind the purchase of every item. One
If a person buys something with a specific motivation and purpose, then another person can buy the same thing because of some other motivation. Purchasing motivation is the force, effect, idea or desire that drives buyers to buy specific goods and services to satisfy their needs. In other words, purchasing-motivation is that internal desire or desire that motivates a person to buy a particular item.
DJ. According to DJ Durian, “Purchasing motivations are those forces or factors which generate the impulse to buy, or induce or determine interest in the purchase of a good or service.
William J. According to Stanton (William J. Stanton), “A motivation becomes a buying motivation when a person tries to get satisfaction by purchasing something.” Of. Of. According to Gupta (KK Gupta), purchasing motivation is the internal force that motivates the buyer to purchase a good or service to satisfy his needs. It is thus clear that purchase motivation refers to those internal feelings, forces, impulses or cravings which encourage the buyer to buy a good or service. According to Hampton and Zabin, purchasing motivation is the thought, feeling or condition that motivates a person to buy.
Classification of Buying Motives
Every person is interested in self interest and behaves according to his own desires, feelings, desires and intelligence. This is the reason why there are different types of buying motivations visible under marketing behaviour. Different scholars have classified purchasing motivations differently. Purchasing motivation has been classified by leading scholars as follows: E.J. McCarthy (EJ MeCarthy) has given eight buying motivations,
Which can be explained as follows- (i) Comfort and entertainment, (ii) Curiosity, (iii) Introduction, (iv) Sociable, (v) Pride, (vi) Fear, (vii) Subject pleasure satisfaction of
Charles B. Roy (Charles B. Roth) has considered hunger, habit, sex, jealousy, fear, enmity, conflict, eagerness, social prestige, love, pomp, comfort, greed, personal development, etc. as the main buying motives. William G. Carter (William G. Carter) has also mentioned some similar buying motivations which are as follows: money, pomp, desire for achievement, sense of competition, grooming, cleanliness, collection, entertainment, creation, companionship, mental culture, Approval instinct, ambition, respect, affection, social achievement, comfort, artistic interest, sex, imitation, eagerness, self-defense, sympathy, gratitude, patriotism, etc.
Melvin S. Melvin S. Hatvick has divided purchasing motivations into two categories. These motivations arise as a result of the individual’s desire to survive. In other words, behind these motivations are mainly the essential needs of man. One scholar has clearly written that, “No one learns these motivations. Every person is born with these motivations and these motivations stay with him for the rest of his life. ,
Apart from needs, other factors also affect the primary purchasing motivations. According to Melvin, the main factors influencing primary purchasing motivations are (i) eating and drinking, (ii) comfort, (iii) attracting the opposite sex, (iv) doing good to loved ones, (v) fear. and to get rid of danger, (vi) to become superior, (vii) to gain social recognition, (viii) to live longer, etc.
2. Secondary Buying Motives – Secondary or auxiliary purchasing motivations arise from society or environment. Melvin has given nine types of secondary purchasing motivations which are as follows
(i) Bargain, (ii) Information, (iii) Cleanliness, (iv) Efficiency, (v) Convenience, (vi) Reliability and high quality, (vii) Style and beauty, (viii) Economy and profit and (ix) In order to facilitate the study of curiosity, the purchasing motivations can be explained as follows:
(1) Emotional and Rotaional Buying Motives – Affective buying motivations refer to those buying motivations in which the heart or emotion predominates over the mind or conscience. In practice, many emotional motivations motivate the buyer to buy the item, such as hunger, thirst, desire for a partner, prestige, ego, pride, jealousy, love, sex, security, enmity, beauty etc. The marketer discovers emotional buying impulses and drives consumer sentiment by promoting them, such as the maker of Lux bath soap, does the science that Hema Malini says, “Lux makes my complexion brighter.” Make-up companies offer a picture of a beautiful woman in the advertisement of their cream and offer a suggestive idea that, “If you want to be more attractive then you use this cream.” Prudent buying motivations refer to those purchasing motivations in which the mind or reason is more dominant than emotion. Under judicious buying motives, decisions are taken to purchase the item after considering many factors like price, economy, use, durability, utility, service, reliability, convenience, efficiency etc. A buyer motivated by prudent motives takes more time to purchase the item, that is, gives adequate consideration to the merits and demerits of the item. Marketers promote these persuasive elements in their advertising by finding sensible incentives. For example, manufacturers of cookers talk about saving time and fuel in their advertisements. Fan manufacturers place a high emphasis on the airiness and durability of their fans in their advertising.
Generally every buyer tries to make a prudent purchase but sometimes buyers are able to exercise discretion in the purchase decision by being influenced by the emotional elements like friendship, love, fame, jealousy etc.
2. Acquired or Inherent Buying Motives: Acquired buying motives are those motivations which are learned and are related to the buyer’s environment. These are also called ‘subsidiary’ or ‘subsidiary’ purchasing motivations. The consumer has to develop these buying motivations. They develop these buying motivations by looking at their social environment and environment. These buying motivations may include frugality, information, efficiency, profit, cleanliness, convenience, variety, reliability or dependability, beauty, fashion, durability, uniqueness, social standing, recognition, etc. The satisfaction that consumers get in these forms the basis of evaluation of these motivations. Socio-economic conditions and education level have a significant impact on these purchasing motivations.
Inherent buying motivations are motivations that do not have to be learned. On the contrary, these motivations are present in every buyer from birth. Every normal person is born with these motivations or is born with the capacity to develop them. These motivations include the need for goods and services to satisfy physical, psychological and social needs.
b • Incentives are included. In other words, the motivations related to hunger, thirst, sleep, rest, appreciation, strength, security, play and pleasure, survival, welfare of loved ones, etc. are intrinsic buying motivations.
In short, it can be said that intrinsic purchasing motivations are related to natural and basic human instincts, whereas acquired purchasing motivations are related to the environment. Inherent buying motives are the primary motivations and are very clear, definite. But acquired purchasing motivations are secondary motivations and are relatively less pronounced.
3. Product and Patronage Buying Motives Such an incentive arises from the physical or psychological attractions of that particular object. The design, colour, shape, performance, package or price of an item are the basis of product buying motivations. Protection Buying Motivations are those motivations which encourage buyers to buy goods from a specific seller only. Sellers also include manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers and retailers. Copeland writes that “both the consumer and the intermediary have
Give more importance to factors that are not directly related to goods, but are related to their past experiences with sellers or the problem of continuing future relationships. These factors are called conservation motivations.” According to Copeland, the reliability of the seller, punctuality in delivery, promptness in delivery, complete satisfaction with the goods, various types and reliability of repair services are the components of engineering and design, which are the basis of conservation buying motives. Kirkpatrick writes that sellers give incentives to buyers to buy goods from the shop on the basis of services, condition of the shop, different types, employees, mutual courtesy and price, which are called patronage buying motivations. Display, decoration, credit facilities, return facilities, home delivery, reputation etc. are also the factors that form the basis of patronage purchase motivations.
4. Physical, Psychological and Sociological Buying Motives—Physical motivations include hunger, thirst, sleep, sexual, rest and life-related motivations. Psychological buying-motives are subjective and include motivations such as pride, fear, etc. Social purchasing motives are a set of motivations related to the present and expected social situation.
5. Primary and Selective Buying Motives- Primary and Selective Buying Motives are those purchasing motivations which give motivation for general purchase of goods. For example, the motivations which encourage the purchase of radio or television or car or motorcycle etc. are called ‘primary buying motivations’. These motivations are considered to increase the general demand for the goods and do not motivate the purchase of any particular brand. Selective buying motives are those motivations which influence the decision to purchase a particular brand. For example, the incentives to buy Eddy Motorcycle or Bajaj Scooter or Hind Cycle are called selective buying motivations. Kirkpatrick has broadened the scope of selective buying motivations to include not only brand selection but also vendor selection. He writes that ‘selective considerations dictate the consumer’s brand preference, source (manufacturer’s preference or retailer’s preference or sales-person preference).
6. Concious and Dormant Buying Motives – Conscious buying motives are those motivations which buyers clearly identify and express without the help of marketing activities. In other words, the buying motives that encourage the purchase of buyers to satisfy the needs existing on the conscious surface are called ‘conscious motivations’. These motivations automatically keep arising in the mind of the buyers. The need for external environment is relatively less for the generation of these motivations. But the external environment and marketing programs can intensify these buying motivations. Dormant buying motives are those motivations which buyers do not recognize until their attention is drawn to the buying motives through marketing activities. These motivations attract the attention of the buyers to fulfill the needs about which the buyers themselves do not care and which are present on the unconscious surface.